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                       JPNIC Translated Document

Source document: JPNIC REPORT 1
Date of the source: September 1993
Date of the last update of this translation: October 28, 1995

This is a translation of a JPNIC document. JPNIC provides this
translation for convenience of those who can not read Japanese. But it
may contain mis-translations, and is by no means official. One should
consult the source document written in Japanese for detail.

 The first General Meeting of JPNIC was held at the University of Tokyo,
computer centre on April 9th, 1993. The participants were related to 20
networks organizations that are the members of JPNIC. It was a new step
for the information center which is meant to be a place where experts
related to Computer networks of Japan would be able to share information.

    Why, and for what purpose?

 The e-mail address used for sending e-mail on the Internet
(at the same time it is often checked that whether the e-mail address
is correct or not) have a standard format and its uniqueness is guaranteed.
It means that there is no overlapping and it is the fundamental condition for
sending a mail to a specified address correctly.

 The same thing can be said about the work stations or personal computers
that are connected to the Internet through TCP/IP. While setting IP addresses
on one's own, overlapping of IP addresses within the same organization can
be prevented by paying attention. However, when connected to wide area
networks, while networking with other networks through TCP/IP, it is
necessary to make sure that the networking partner is not having the same
IP address. Apart from the case of wide area networks, if by accident
it becomes the case that two related companies are having the same IP
address (for example, the IP address set for both of the systems when
they were supplied) then it would cause serious troubles.

 In addition, the advancement of wide area networks has made it possible to
communicate with a number of organizations, and at the same time it has caused
the necessity to have online information services as well as navigation
services for knowing a specific organization's domain name (for example
kyushu-u.ac.jp) or IP address (for example Telephone directory or
the 104 information service provided by NTT can be thought as examples.

 These are common problems among computer networks, organizations connected to
the network as well as users of the network. So this problem is not to the
service of a specific voluntary, network organizations or university.
Allocation of common resources like addresses and the management of these
information is a common need for the persons concerned with computer networks
and therefore it has to be carried out in a in fair and uniform manner.

  The steps related to the inauguration of the center

 However, for realizing an information center like JPNIC, devotion and
effort of other related organization can not be neglected. For this it is
necessary to go back to the period when JUNET did a rapid improvement. During
that period, the domain name for composing a mailing address has to be
allocated to all intercontinental organizations with the help of the voluntary
administration group of JUNET named as junet-admin. JUNET used to use the
domain names that end with ".junet", but latter in 1989 it was changed to
".jp". The jp domain name represents the computer networks of Japan, and
from that period, apart from JUNET (IP networks like WIDE, TISN, JAIN
etc. and BITNET was active during that time), other network organizations
were also allowed to use the domain name. But as there were no substantial
mechanism for assigning domain names, JUNET continued to allocate domain
names to other network organizations.

 On the other hand, although applications had to be made directly to
SRINIC for intercontinental IP address allocation, from February, 1989
network address coordination committee took the responsibility for this
task. However, as the administration of the secretariat was to be carried
out by university professors who themselves had many other things to do,
the response was far from quick.

 This situation continued until the inauguration of JNIC. During that
period the technology of networks developed in a rapid speed and because
of the great importance of networks, the work load for the administration
of IP address and domain name allocation reached the peak. The delay in
the process of allocation was starting to slow down the development of
networks. At that time, JCRN(Japan Committee for Research Network) which was
formed by the representatives of all network organizations and conferences,
started JNIC in December, 1991 with the cooperation of each of the network

 This JNIC was the former form of the present JPNIC. The role of JPNIC
was to prevent the delay for allocation, clarify the necessary services and
methods for providing the same, and to prepare for a new organizational
structure. From 6/1992, JPNIC took the responsibility for the allocation and
administration of IP addresses. In case of JPNIC, as the steering committee
was formed by the members who were selected from each of the network
organization, unbiased service was guaranteed. With the help of the
volunteers the problem of delay in processing was solved and a certain amount
of improvement was achieved. However, as there were no government foundation
for supporting the developing computer networks world, it became necessary to
organize JPNIC in some form. At the same time, as commercial networks were to
appear in near future, it had to think that how to correspond with networks
other than the research networks.

        Inauguration of JPNIC

 The JNIC steering committee was considering this matter and by seeking
advice from each of the network organization, it established a
voluntary organization with the network project of each organization as
its member. At present the work is in progress and its content is also
satisfactory. As it has been mentioned earlier, with the cooperation
of University of Tokyo, computer centre, the secretariat is placed within
the centre and from April, 1993 Japan Network Information Center started
its activities.

 JPNIC should provide the IP addresses that it is in charge of, and other
information to the persons who are related to computer networks, and it
should act as a fair organization. Therefore, the membership fee is neither
a tax nor a fee for acquiring an address. A center is established for
performing the common works of the member networks and the membership fee is
to be utilized for the administration of the center. Apart from that, the
minutes of the JPNIC meetings are made public and the meeting itself (like a
court room, if the number of seat for spectators is limited then there might be
a lottery and apart from the cases where it is necessary to keep the privacy
of the applicant) is generally open to anyone.

 Although the formal name is the same in both Japanese and English, there
is a specific reason for changing "JNIC" to "JPNIC". If Japan is represented
with the letter "J" then it would be difficult to classify it from other
countries (Jamaica or Jordan) that start with the same letter. As a first
step towards internationalization the two ISO code letter "JP" is placed at
the beginning and the name is changed to JPNIC.

 JPNIC is in cooperation with the InterNIC which was inaugurated on April,1993
as the Network Information Center of international Internet (it took over
the work from DDN NIC) and RIPE NCC of Europe, and it is on the move to form
an internationally cooperative organization under IANA.

 JPNIC is recognized by the international Internet community as a country NIC
and at the same time it is responsible for providing information to different
countries in the world.

        Structure and activities of JPNIC

 As it has been said earlier, the objective of JPNIC is to contribute
for the smooth development of computer networks by providing the
necessary registrations and information. Allocation of domain names and
IP addresses, administration of name server and providing, collecting
network information are very important for supporting the administration
and development of networks. At the same time, activities in respect
to the society, and international cooperation is a must for a sound
administration and development of JPNIC.

 In order to achieve the goal JPNIC has its general meeting, board of trustees,
steering committee and a secretariat. Here, the general meeting is formed by
the representatives of the member networks, board of trustees is formed by the
trustees, auditors who are elected during the general meeting, and the steering
committee is formed by the committee members who are appointed by the board of
trustees. The substantial activities of JPNIC is discussed by the steering
committee ( 18 members at present ) and they are executed by the staff and the
secretariat. The steering committee has the following working groups and it
is involved in several tasks like distributing work to each committee member.

 Working group name      Role
 -------------------     ---------------------------------------------------
    DOM                  Allocation of JP domain name
    IP                   Allocation of IP address
    DB-IN                Collect information related to network
    DB-OUT               Provide information related to network
    DNS                  Administration of name server
    PUB                  Public relations
    RES                  Administration of managing resources
    SOC                  Investigation of social problems
    FUTURE               Investigation of the future of JPNIC
    CHARGE               Investigation of the charge of JPNIC
    RULE                 Investigation of the rules and regulations of JPNIC
    APNIC                Cooperation with Asia-pacific NIC

                                                      (As of September, 1993)

 It can be thought that the foundation of JPNIC was necessary for
the development of networks. If compared to the period of JUNET, there
has been a great improvement and at present it is continuing the administrative
works with the support and cooperation of other organizations.

 Unfortunately, at present the membership fees can only meet the expenses
of the administrative works. For a proper maintenance and a sound development,
it is necessary to understand the role of JPNIC for networks, government
support, and knowledge and advice in respect to networks technology. Above all,
the cooperation and participation of responsible volunteer and staff is
very important.
                                        (Masaki Hirabaru, Kyushu University)

  Members list of Japan Network Information Center, as of July 7, 1993

Regional Internet Connection-Tsukuba Committee (RIC-Tsukuba)
Tohoku internet (TiA)
Chugoku-Shikoku Internet Council (CSI)
Tokai Regional Network Dynamics (TRENDY)
International Science Network (TISN)
IIJ Internet (IIJ)
Tohoku Open Internet Community (TOPIC)
Japan Academic Inter-university Network (JAIN)
Dai 5 chiku Network Community (NCA5)
WIDE Internet (WIDE)
Japan Organized InterNetwork (JOIN)
"Because It's Time" Network in JaPan (BITNETJP)
Gakujyutu jyouhou center (NACSIS)
Zaidan houjin Denki. Densijyouhougakujyutusinkouzaidan
West InterNetwork Complex (WINC)
Kyushu Area Regional Research Network (KARRN)
Osaka Regional Information & Open Network System (ORIONS)
Tokyo Regional Academic Inter-Network (TRAIN)
Network Organization for Research and Technology in Hokkaido (NORTH)
Spin Project (Spin)

Board and Steering Committee Members of Japan Network Information Center,
as of July, 1993

President               : Jun Murai
Vice President          : Mizuho Mori

Trustees                : Shouichiro Asano
                          Haruhisa Ishida
                          Tuneyoshi Kamae
                          Shoichi Noguchi
                          Jun Murai
                          Mizuho Mori
                          Shin Yoshimura

Auditors                : Koki Higashida
                          Naomasa Maruyama

Chair of the Steering Committee      : Masaki Hirabaru
Vice Chair of the Steering Committee : Hiroaki Takada

Steering Committee Members: Akiko Aizawa
                            Akira Kato
                            Kazue Kamiyama
                            Yukio Karita
                            Kazunori Konishi
                            Kunio Goto
                            Shigeki Goto
                            Nobuhiro Sakai
                            Susumu Sano
                            Jun'ichi Nakamura
                            Masaya Nakayama
                            Koki Higashida
                            Jun Matsukata
                            Naomasa Maruyama
                            Jun Murai
                            Shin Yoshimura

Secretary-general         : Masaya Nakayama

Secretariat :
               Japan Network Information Center
               c/o Computer Centre, University of Tokyo
               2-11-16, Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113, Japan

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