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                       JPNIC Translated Document

Source document: JPNIC REPORT 2
Date of the source: October 1993
Date of the last update of this translation: October 28, 1995

This is a translation of a JPNIC document. JPNIC provides this
translation for convenience of those who can not read Japanese. But it
may contain mis-translations, and is by no means official. One should
consult the source document written in Japanese for detail.
                        Domain name allocation

  What is a Domain name?

 In Internet, names like "AAA.BB.JP" separated by period are used to express
domain name for organizations.
 This domain name is a part of an electronic mail address and it has to be
unique for all the organizations. Here the domain name after the last period
(known as first level or top level (*1)) represents the country code (JP for
Japan) as decided in ISO 3166 (*2). In case of Japan, considering JP as the
top level, the domain name allocation group of JPNIC allocates domain name
up to the third level (from now on it will be referred as JP domain name).

   (*1) Domain names are read from left to right, i.e the one after the
        last period is referred as level 1, the one next to it as level 2
        and the next one as level 3 domain name and so on.

   (*2) In case of America there are exceptions like edu, com etc. But
        in most of the cases they have been used before the code was
        decided and they are kept the same because of historical reasons.

  The present condition and structure of JP domain

 The second level of JP domain represents the attribute of an organization
by a two letter code (AC = academic, CO = commercial, GO = government,
OR = organization, AD = administration (*3)), and the third level represents
the organization name (known as domain name for organization). At present,
JPNIC allocates one domain name per organization except for the exceptions
(*4) that are approved by JPNIC.

 The number of JP domain name as of September 1st, 1993 is given in table 1.
JPNIC allocates, updates or deletes 30 to 40 domain names per month and this
task tends to increase per month.

 Table 1.   Nomber of allocated JP domain name
      | Attribute | No. of allocated | No. of domain    |
      |           | domain           |  (Not connected) |
      |    AC     |      312         |        63        |
      |    CO     |      676         |       177        |
      |    GO     |       77         |        12        |
      |    OR     |       77         |        17        |
      |    AD     |       25         |         5        |
      |    JP     |        3         |         0        |
      |Total      |     1170         |       274        |

   (*3) Due to historical reasons, there are three organizations where
        the second level is a organization domain name.

   (*4) The cases where an organization needs more than one domain name
        for administrating, operating different network services or
        the case where it is necessary to change a domain name, are
        approved by JPNIC as exceptions.

  Future of JP domain name

 Allocation for individuals

 Recently there is an increasing demand for achieving domain name as an
individual. According to the previous regulations only corporations and
organizations could obtain a domain name. But from June 1, 1993 the
following provisions are provided for individuals.

1. Widening the scope of attribute OR

 If there is an application from an Internet service provider for allocating
 an OR domain name which is below the 4th level, then the allocation is
 granted. With the help of this service, individuals can avail domain name
 like myname.xxx.or.jp from the networks (for example xxx.or.jp) that provide
 services to individuals.

2. Widening the scope of attribute CO

 Projects owned by individuals are treated the same as enterprises and
 they are allowed to have domain names with CO attribute. However, JPNIC
 is considering this problem along with the introduction of Geographic
 Domain name and at present only registered enterprises can avail this.

 JPNIC is also investigating in the direction of widening the scope for
 an individual for selecting individual domain name by introducing Geographic
 Domain system which is to be discussed next.

 Introduction of Geographic Domain

 If only the present Domain name system is put in to practice, then for
example if all the middle schools that are there in the whole continent
join the Internet, then the number of domain name with AC attribute will
become enormous. For this, not only the number gets large, but also the name
will become long because it is necessary to assign unique domain name to
each organization and if there already exists a domain name that is being
applied then the possibility of alternation is fairly high. Geographic
Domain system is introduced to avoid these kind of problems.

 As the name itself indicates, Geographic Domain name represents geographic
name as domain name and this system is already introduced in countries like
America. At present JPNIC is investigating in the direction of assigning
the fourth level domain name by representing the second level as the name of
the prefecture and the third level as the name of the city. If this system
is introduced, then the organizations (organizations of a prefecture or city,
elementary school, middle school) that are there in a specific prefecture
or city can be treated in a different way then the present attribute. This
system not only deals with organizations but also the inhabitants of that
prefecture/city and individuals who are engaged in business.

 At present JPNIC is investigating the concrete problems like what would be
the name of the second and third level, whether there is any problem with the
name server that is to handle the domain name, and it is trying to realize
the Geographic Domain system as soon as possible.

  How to obtain the related documents

 Regulations related to domain name allocation, rules for obtaining, modifying
deleting domain names and several other information can be obtained by sending
an empty e-mail to info@domain.nic.ad.jp. If e-mail service is not available
then please contact the JPNIC secretariat, it will send the documents by

 Although, at present the following documents are send back to the mailer,
because of the introduction of Geographic Domain, they are to be modified
in the near future.

 o JP domain name allocation (as of June 1, 1993)

   Definition of JP domain name, important matters related to the whole
   application procedure is documented.

 o Application for a Fresh JP domain name (as of June 1, 1993)

   This is an application form for a fresh JP domain name. Important matters
   related to a fresh application and the hints for filling out the same is

 o Application related to JP domain name modification (as of June 1, 1993)

   This is an application form for JP domain name modification. Important
   matters related to an application for modification and the hints for
   filling out the same is documented.

 o Application for the abolition of domain name (as of June 1, 1993)

   This is an application form for the abolition of a domain name. Important
   matters related to an application for abolition and the hints for
   filling out the same is documented.

 o A guide for selecting domain name for organization (as of February 1, 1993)

   A document for deciding the domain name of organizations while applying for
   a fresh domain name.

  Application for JP domain name

 There are three kinds of applications and they are application for a fresh
domain name, application for a modification and application for a
deletion and in all of the cases JPNIC accepts the application either by
e-mail or by post (*5). If the submitted documents are not incomplete, then
they are processed within ten days from the date of arrival of the documents
to JPNIC, and a reply is send back to the applicant (or to the intermediary).
In case of a fresh application, a new domain is allocated and the same is
registered in the JPNIC database. However, it should be noted that if the
allotted domain name is not registered in the name server within one year then
it is considered to be not in use and it will become invalid (*6). For all
of the applications, the format of the application form might change. In
order to cooperate with the automatic processing of the documents, applicants
are here by requested to obtain the latest document by the above mentioned
method prior to their applications.

   (*5) For reducing the work load of the secretariat, in case the e-mail
        service is not available, the applicant is requested to look for
        an intermediary who has an access to e-mail.

   (*6) As soon as the new domain gets connected to the network, if
        the same is not registered to the JPNIC name server, then e-mail
        will not reach. For details, please refer to the document,
        "Procedures for setting up the name server" which can be obtained
        from info@dns.nic.ad.jp and the document "JPNIC registration form"
        which can be obtained from info@db.nic.ad.jp.

  JPNIC contact

 o The postal address for obtaining applications, documents is as follows.

       Japan Network Information Center
       c/o Computer Centre, University of Tokyo
       2-11-16, Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113 Japan

   Please make sure to enclose a self-addressed envelope with adequate
   postage stamps, and write [Domain name application] etc. on the front
   of the envelope.

 o Address for queries by e-mail

   Address for retrieving documents:

   Address for sending application forms related to domain name:

 Recently the application for JP domain name has increased enormously and
it indicates the growth of the Internet. As a result, the number of people
who have an access to e-mail is also increasing and this can be thought
as a remarkable change.

 JPNIC is going to work in the direction of constructing a system which
will speed up the allocation procedure, investigate new systems such as
Geographic Domain etc. and to arrange useful documents. Therefore, please
send your comments and suggestions to JPNIC.
                                (Kazue Kamiyama, Science University of Tokyo)

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