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                       JPNIC Translated Document

Source document: JPNIC REPORT 4
Date of the source: December 1993
Date of the last update of this translation: November 1, 1995

This is a translation of a JPNIC document. JPNIC provides this
translation for convenience of those who can not read Japanese. But it
may contain mis-translations, and is by no means official. One should
consult the source document written in Japanese for detail.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
                Members and Membership fees

 JPNIC is a voluntary organization and the network projects are its
member. The main financial resource for the administration of JPNIC
is sought from the membership fees of its members. Therefore the member and
membership fees might not be directly related to the persons who are connected
to the Internet or using the same through the network projects. However,
recently new type of networks like local networks or commercial Internet etc.
have appeared and they collect maintenance fees from the connected
organizations. Because of that, these network organizations argue about the
membership fees that is sought for participating with JPNIC as a member, and
admirable opinions related to JPNIC's member classification and membership
fees have increased. Because of that, the member and the mechanism for
determining membership fees is discussed here.

 The subjects that are to be discussed here are based on the rules and the
regulations of JPNIC. Any one interested in more details is
requested to obtain the public document related to the rules and regulations
(*1) of JPNIC from the ftp server.

(1*) The public documents related to the rules and regulations of JPNIC is
     kept in the anonymous ftp server called ftp.nic.ad.jp and the documents
     are under the directory /pub/jpnic-pub.  Documents related to JCRN can
     also be obtained from the same server under the directory /pub/jcrn.

        Members of JPNIC

 Although, there are two types of members called regular members and
supporting members, here only regular members will be considered. The regular
members of JPNIC are not the organizations who are participating in Internet or
any individual user, but the network projects that operates the network. These
are networks where the organizations and the administrative regulations are
clear, and to be specific network projects like TISN, WIDE Internet etc.,
academic information centers, Internet administrated by Internet service
providers (commercial networks), local networks etc. fall into this category.
As it is explained in the first part of this serial document (9/1993), JPNIC
is the center where the common works of each network is performed and because
of that the unit of membership fees is network project.

 Network projects that are regular members of JPNIC, register their
representatives as JPNIC committee members. The activities of JPNIC are
decided during the general meeting where the members take part, or during the
board of trustees meeting where the trustees are elected during the general
meeting. However, the actual actions are taken by the steering committee and
the secretariat who are appointed by the board of trustees.

 Depending on the nature of the organization or on the objective of the
network, the regular members are divided into two types and they are A and
B. Type A are non-commercial organizations with no commercial objectives and
they are academic networks. Networks other than type A are considered to be
type B. Based on the number of organization or the number of user connected
to a regular member, it is divided into 11 groups and depending on the scale
of the network, the membership fees and the maximum number of committee member
that can be registered is decided. The membership fees of each division and
the number of committee member registered for each group is given in table 1.

 Even if the objective of the network is academic, if it is administrated by
a commercial organization, non-commercial organization and if commercial
activities are allowed on the network then it will be classified as type B.

table 1  The membership fees and the number of committee member registered
+--------+------------+--------------------+--------------+-------------------+
|Category| Number of  |   Number of user   |Membership fee|Number of member   |
|        |organization|connected to network|type A  type B|registered to JPNIC|
+--------+------------+--------------------+--------------+-------------------+
|    1   |     -   10 |         -    10,000|   2      10  |       1           |
|    2   |  11 -   20 |  10,001 -    20,000|   3      15  |       2           |
|    3   |  21 -   30 |  20,001 -    30,000|   4      20  |       2           |
|    4   |  31 -   50 |  30,001 -    50,000|   5      25  |       3           |
|    5   |  51 -   70 |  50,001 -    70,000|   6      30  |       3           |
|    6   |  71 -  100 |  70,001 -   100,000|   7      35  |       3           |
|    7   | 101 -  200 | 100,001 -   200,000|   8      40  |       4           |
|    8   | 201 -  300 | 200,001 -   300,000|   9      45  |       4           |
|    9   | 301 -  500 | 300,001 -   500,000|  10      50  |       5           |
|   10   | 501 -  700 | 500,001 -   700,000|  11      55  |       5           |
|   11   | 701 - 1000 | 700,001 - 1,000,000|  12      60  |       5           |
+--------+------------+--------------------+--------------+-------------------+
                                *Membership fee: 100,000 yen per one unit

        Authorization of academic research networks

 As explained earlier, the members of type A must satisfy the following three
conditions.

 1. Administration by a nonprofit organization
 2. Nonprofit purpose
 3. Academic research network

 Although 1 and 2 can be simply decided from the agreement, JPNIC does not
judge the decision for 3. Therefore, at present JCRN (Japan Committee for
Research Network) is in charge for deciding 3.

 JCRN was established on October, 1990 and its committee members are the
representatives of the information processing society, the institute of
electronics information and communication, other major scientific society and
academic networks. It promotes and coordinates the academic usage of domestic
networks. The chair of JCRN is professor Syouihi Noguchi of Japan university,
and the secretariat is professor Haruhisa Ishida of Tokyo university.

 In order to be a type A member of JPNIC, it is necessary to get an
authorization from JCRN as an academic research network. However, for the
present year(1993), nonprofit organization with nonprofit objectives can
register as a type A member with or without the authorization from JCRN.

         Membership fees

 The objective of JPNIC is not profit-making, and therefore it cannot
charge fees more than the necessary expenses. On the other hand this expense
has to be shared among the members in a fair and reasonable way. The membership
fees given in table 1 was decided by the steering committee of JNIC in 1992.
For deciding the expenses, the opinions of related networks and network
projects has been considered. The estimated expenses of JPNIC for the year
1993 is based on the estimated number of network projects that are to become
members and the scale of those network projects. The membership fees for the
year 1994 will be reexamined based on the next year's plan for activities,
budget and the estimated number of new member.

 The present membership fees get almost exponentially high as the scale of the
network gets large. On the other hand the membership fees of the non-academic
and other networks are five times higher than the academic networks. The
reason for this is explained next.

 The expenses necessary for the activities of JPNIC is obtained from the
members based on the idea of sharing the expenses depending on the scale
of the network, and therefore as the scale of the network gets large the
membership fees also gets higher. Besides, based on the following idea the
membership fees gets exponentially high.

 As the scale of the network gets large, the labor for the administration of
name server and address gets increased. Also because of sharing of work among
the member's own network, the membership fees is not always proportional to
the scale of the network. On the other hand administrative works of small
networks is not always less. Maintenance of project and database, official
works take the same amount of time and effort as it is with a large network
project. The relation between the scale of the network and the membership
fees is derived by considering these points.

 JPNIC administrates network resources/information like IP address, domain
name and these are to be administrated and managed as a common asset for
the people related to network in an unbiased manner. Because of the arrival
of local and commercial networks, these resources are no more limited to
the academic research networks only. Here, it should be noted that the big
difference between the membership fees of type A and type B is not because
of any favor towards academic research networks. At present, the expenses
of JPNIC is not only sought from its members. In reality a large part of
it is obtained from the activities of the volunteers and staffs of network
projects. If the facilities for the activities of the volunteers and staffs
are taken into account then the real expenses for the activities of JPNIC
will become five times more than its present earnings which is from
membership fees. Moreover that, most of these activities are performed by
the persons related to academic research networks. On the other hand it is
necessary to consider the fact that compared to membership fees technical
contribution is easy for academic research networks and if compared to
technical contribution, membership fees is easy for commercial Internet
and local networks that receive membership fees from their members. Therefore
this 1 to 5 difference does not mean that academic research networks
should pay only 1/5, instead it means that the remaining 5/4 is to be
the technical contributions from volunteers.

 Considering the future activities of JPNIC, the dependency on volunteers
is to be reduced and a fair system for sharing the expenses has to be
established. In future the big difference between the membership fees of
type A and type B is to be decreased.

 The role of JPNIC has become more important. Because of the growth of the
Internet within the country, the official works for domain administration and
address allocation is on a sudden increase. Besides, the facilities for a
stabilized operation of domain name server and online information service
is to be improved. Moreover that, information exchange among InterNIC and NIC
of other countries, cooperation to APNIC which arranges the information of
circum-Pacific networks including Japan and other international cooperation is
also scheduled. These are necessary for maintaining the network environment of
Japan and for the connectivity to the rest of the world. For a smooth activity
and for a stable system, all of us should consider the necessity of membership
fees, volunteers and staffs.
                                        (Susumu Sano, WIDE Project / NEC)
            

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