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                       JPNIC Translated Document

Source document: JPNIC REPORT 5
Date of the source: January 1994
Date of the last update of this translation: November 5, 1995

This is a translation of a JPNIC document. JPNIC provides this
translation for convenience of those who can not read Japanese. But it
may contain mis-translations, and is by no means official. One should
consult the source document written in Japanese for detail.
      Experiments for the introduction of Geographic Domain Name

   Geographic Domain name

 As it is mentioned in the October issue, "Geographic Domain name"
uses geographic names and it has already been introduced in countries
like America. Following are the merits of Geographic Domain name.

 o Enlargement of the name space

 Until now, there were only five types AC, CO, GO, OR, AD for
the second level domain name. Now if the prefecture and the city names
expressed in Roman letter is introduced then this number would be
increased to 54 (475 (overlapped part)) types. As a result chances
of a collision will become less.

 o The scope for domain name selection will be enlarged

 Compared to the conventional attribute type, the selection space would
certainly get enlarged.

 o Individual, regional organizations ( Elementary/ middle schools, high
   schools, government offices) will be included

 Organizations related to regional activities or elementary/secondary
educational institutions would be able to obtain names which would represent
the scope of the organizations.

 In case of conventional attribute type domain name, there has been cases where
the domain names overlapped. And applications from organizations owned by
individuals, high schools, regional public organization's administrative
system have rapidly increased. Considering the situation, JPNIC has taken the
initiative to start its one year pilot project on Geographic Domain name
allocation from December 1, 1993.

 Structure of Geographical Domain Name

 The second level of a Geographical Domain Name consists the name of the
prefecture or the name of the city decided by the government in Roman form,
the third level consists of the name of the village or town in Roman
form (full spell in Hepburn system) and the fourth level is filled by the

<ORGANIZATION domain name> ::=
   <organization name>"."<town/village name>"."<prefecture/city name>".""JP"

 For example in case of FOO high school located in Chiba prefecture's Narashino
city, the domain name will be FOO-HS.NARASHINO.CHIBA.JP. Besides, if the
prefecture name and the name of the city decided by the government is the
same, then the same name will be used for both. That is both of Chiba
prefecture and Chiba city will become CHIBA.JP.

 Eligibility for allocation

 The organizations/individuals that satisfy one of the following conditions
can obtain Geographic Domain name.

1. Individual who lives in that region and who would use the domain name in
   that region.
2. Educational institution lower than high school and located in that region
3. Corporation whose activities are based on that region and organizations that
   are associated with corporation
4. Organization whose attribute is one of AC, GO, OR and which is located
   in that region

 Although the organizations which have already obtained attribute type domain
name are not eligible to apply for Geographic Domain name, alternation is

 Modification of conventional system

 With the start of Geographic Domain name, the eligibility for obtaining AC,
CO of conventional domain name will be modified. AC is for academic
organizations and until now it was allocable to all the organizations
based on school education law. But the organizations related to the region,
like elementary/middle school, high school, school for physically handicapped,
school for blind, school for deaf and dumb and kindergartens are not allowed
for this. In case of CO, as the organizations owned by individuals
are now eligible to obtain Geographic Domain name, they are also excluded.
Therefore, from now on the eligibility for obtaining AC and CO will be the

AC: Academic organizations
   School based on education law and other regulations (elementary/middle
   school, high school, school for physically handicapped, school for blind,
   school for deaf and dumb and kindergartens are excluded), educational
   institutions, universities, school for higher education

CO: Enterprises
    Profit-making organizations, corporations where mercantile law is
    applicable, corporations where company law is applicable, and other
    unique companies

        Pilot project

 A lot of problems have to be solved and a lot more investigations are to
be followed before the full-scaled introduction of Geographic Domain name.
The present pilot project is to get hold of the substantial demand, investigate
the draw-backs and find solutions for the draw-backs, and thats why the
project is limited to one year. The effort for further improvement is to be
followed after the experiments are over. Depending on the case, the domain
name might have to be changed. The problems that are clear at present, and
the scheduled investigations are as follows.

 Full spell representation

 Although in the project the name of prefectures and towns are represented
by full spell, there might be opinions that to write the names
in full is a tiresome job. Opinions like, if the names get long then
the probability for typos will get increased was given by the JPNIC working
group. However, the JIS code corresponds to these classifications only, and
no alphabetic codes are provided for this purpose. Besides, a lot of
organizations use these numerical codes. Of course there were opinions like
what about using the zip codes or telephone numbers. But in this case if there
is a typo in the numbers then the message would go to some one else, and as a
result it has been decided to use the full spell.

 However, during the project period, for example if the prefecture name or
the name of the city is considered to be a two letter code, then the same
code may be used when the project is over.

 Problem related to privacy

 With the allocation of Geographic Domain name to individuals, the address,
telephone and fax number of the administrative contact and the technical
contact will be recorded in the JPNIC database. From the aspect of network
administration, the JPNIC database is meant for providing contact information.
However, in this case the refusal to include one's telephone number is a
difficult problem. It is closely related to the present database that is in
operation, and it has to be carefully investigated with a certain amount of
time. The problem has to be examined during the pilot project, and for the
time being it has been decided that the allocation will start with
the precondition that all the information will be included in the database.

 Administration based on contract

 As the name space that has to be administrated for Geographic Domain name
gets large, the work load of JPNIC for the allocation, administration of name
server will also have a sudden increase. In that case if an
organization called ZZZ takes the responsibility for the administration of
XXXX.JP, then it would lighten the work load of JPNIC and the procedure
for allocation will become much more efficient. However, in that case the
allocation procedure of that organization has to be fair and efficient as it is
with JPNIC, and the organization has to be reliable. The procedure for finding
this kind of organization or if there already exists an organization like this
is to be investigated during the period of the project.


 The documents related to the application of Geographic Domain name, contents
of the project, obtaining fresh (attribute type), modification, abolition of
JP domain name are as follows.

 o Allocation of JP Domain name

 Definition of JP domain name and important matters related to the application
 is documented

 o The pilot project related to JP domain name (Geographic Domain name)

  This document is about the pilot project on Geographic Domain name that
  started on 1st of December. The method for a fresh application and the
  application forms are included.

 o Fresh application for JP domain

   This is an application form for a fresh JP domain name. Important matters
   related to a fresh application and the hints for filling out the form is

 o Application related to JP domain name modification

   This is an application form for JP domain name modification. Important
   matters related to an application for modification, and the hints for
   filling out the form is documented.

 o Application for the abolition of domain name

   This is an application form for the abolition of a domain name. Important
   matters related to an application for abolition and the hints for
   filling out the form is documented.

 As a result of a series of serious discussions about the introduction of
Geographic Domain name that continued for six months, finally the decision
has been taken to start the pilot project. However, there are still a lot of
problems that are yet to be discussed. Please send your comments and
suggestions to JPNIC.
                                (Kazue Kamiyama, Science University of Tokyo)

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