JPNIC's contributions to the Internet community can be made, with the support of JPNIC members.
JPNIC Translated Document Source document: jpnic/domain-name-guide.txt Date of the source: February 1, 1993 Date of the last update of this translation: July 14, 1995 This is a translation of a JPNIC document. JPNIC provides this translation for convenience of those who can not read Japanese. But it may contain mis-tranlations, and is by no means official. One should consult the source document written in Japanese for detail. ----------------------------------------------------------------------- Guide to Organization Domain Name Selection Masaki Hirabaru (one of junet-admin) December 1, 1991 February 1, 1993, revised This guide is based on the experiences of junet-admin which has kept contributing to registration of organization domain names for a long time from the inauguration of JUNET to the constitution of the Japan Domain Name Registration Committee for this time. [ The Japan Domain Name Registration Committee was replaced by the Japan ] [ Network Information Center and its domain name registration group. ] A domain name indicates an organization, and there are many subjective elements for the standard of selecting the name, so that contrary guiding principles are described as they are in this guide. Those who use this guide should consider the situations of the concerning organization, sense of values for applying the name, influence to the society, etc. and use it as an aid to selecting the organization domain name. 1. Concept of Domain Name Selection A viewpoint of selecting the domain name is that a domain name belongs to the organization which designates the domain name, therefore, the organization can decide it freely. For deciding a domain name, giving a name to a child should be recollected as an analogy. The intent on the side of telling a name should be preceded most. A viewpoint contrary to the above is that the convenience of the people of other organizations who use the domain name should be preceded, so that the system of domain names should be easy to be understood and that domain names should be beautiful. Because a domain name is a name and at the same time an address for E-mail, etc., many general users may be disturbed by an ambiguous domain name. When uniformity as a whole is considered important, attaching -u to a university and -it to an institute of technology, for example, is easy to remember and prevents mistakes. However, even if Japanese names are identical, English names could be different in some cases. Besides, some may consider that uniformity is not necessary and because each organization is independent even if their names resemble each other, categorization is not necessary and using an original domain name is better. Each organization's attitude to its name and abbreviation and social distinction should be considered to determine whether to put importance on uniformity as a whole and formal name or to appeal the originality, then a domain name should be decided as an intent of the organization. 2. Attribute and JP Select an attribute according to the definition. When two or more attributes seem to be applicable or when none of attributes seems to be applicable, describe the organization accurately, and select a desired attribute or an attribute that seems to be most appropriate. In addition, judgment is made by juridical and constitutional positioning, therefore, even a nonprofit stock company should belong to CO. "XXX Company" that is included in the name is represented by CO, and "Japan ..." is by JP, therefore, they need not be included in <organization name>. 3. Abbreviation and Interference When a formal name is used as a domain name as it is, interferences will hardly occur. On the other hand, using an abbreviation may cause an interference with other organization's name, or even if there is no interference, may be very confusing in some cases. Especially, companies often use three-character abbreviations, so interferences of names are apt to occur. Besides, it may occur that an abbreviation of one organization interferes with a formal name of the other. Although there is one standpoint that such confusion is not to be considered because it is free for an organization to use any domain name, another viewpoint is that using a domain name which may cause confusion with other names is not advantageous to that organization, therefore, sufficient consideration should be taken to use an abbreviation. 4. Agreement in Organization A formal name or abbreviation that has already been used should be used rather than to create a new abbreviation in order to participate in a network. to select a new abbreviation or common name, examine it carefully so that an agreement for the domain name is made in the organization. Even if it is obliged to submit a change application because opposition is raised in the organization after an informal common name is used as a domain name, domain name change will cause troubles to many people who use it and the network supervisor, therefore, a domain name should not be changed without such proper reason as change of formal organization name. A domain name will be diffused on printed matter, and the old domain name can be used for a long time even if it is changed, therefore, basically the organization must be treated exceptionally as using two or more domain names. [ As for the change procedure, the period for exceptional treatment ] [ is defined on the domain name registration document. ] 5. Three Character Domain Name and Abbreviation When a domain name is an acronym formed from the initial letters of an organization name, it is preferable that the acronym is used externally as a formal name representing the organization. For example, it is preferable that the acronym is used on namecards, as an emblem, and for publications, etc. In addition, the fact that the acronym is registered as a trademark can be one of the bases. As for a domain name for which a part of an organization name is omitted, the above case of acronym is applied correspondingly for consideration. When the possibility of interference or misconception with other organization names is low even if such omission is done, it does not cause problem. Basically, when a new abbreviation is designed to participate in a network, whether the abbreviation may pervade in and out of the organization is a criterion for judgment. An easygoing abbreviation is not preferable. As for an informal abbreviation without results of being used, agreement in the organization and affection to the abbreviation should be examined sufficiently. 6. Length of Domain Name As to the specification, it does not matter if a domain name is sufficiently long. A domain name that is spelled out completely is easier to remember than a partly omitted domain name and input mistake is hard to occur. By fulfilling the alias and domain name completion function, directory service, etc., technical solution will be made on the side of user interface. Actually, it is written on RFC1032 that the <organization name> in a domain name is preferably twelve characters or less. This may be because of the consideration that the work of supervisor who handles the domain name becomes easy. Besides, it should be noted that a domain name which is extremely long could be subjected to restrictions of implementation for an operating system or network application. For example, the length of a host name should be 32 characters or less for some UNIX implementation, therefore, when a host name is set by domain format, an extremely long organization domain name would restrain the length of a sub-domain of the organization or a host name. In addition, for entering a E-mail address on a general application form, restrictions may often apply to the entry column as common restrictions apply to a name entry column. A list of organization domain names is available, so please select a domain name with originality which is easy for people of other organizations to be familiar with, by referring to examples of other organizations. 7. Area Name Schools often have each area name, therefore, there are examples of adopting an area name itself as a domain name without attaching -u which represents a university. In this case, pay attention to similarity to other schools which applied an area name in the same way. There is an example of applying an area name to local public bodies and subordinate organizations that belong to GO. In this case, the domain name is recognized as involving all subordinate organizations of the local public bodies in that area. 8. Japanese Name If a domain name is spelled in Roman letters based on a Japanese name, it might be familiar domestically, however, an English name can get along well considering the network internationalism. Also, a mistake is apt to occur in writing an address in Roman letters when it includes sound which is spelled differently in Hepburnian and instruction systems. Of course, when a Japanese name is to be used internationally, the intent must be esteemed. 9. Hyphenation and Upper Case To use a domain name composed of two or more words, in general, either delimit them using a hyphen ("-") or use a upper case for the initial letter of each word. There is no distinction between upper and lower cases for a domain name, and it does not matter if a person who uses it represents the initial letter in upper case and other letters in lower cases. An underscore ("_") cannot be included in a domain name. 10. Zone Those who make application should clarify the zone in which the applied domain name is or may be used. This zone is an organization described here. For example, when a research department of a company is to participate in a network, if a domain name representing the whole company is applied, the organization that applies is not the research office but the company itself, and the person who makes application is responsible for the use of the domain name in the zone of the whole company. Educational organizations, corporations, etc. are proper as zones from a social viewpoint. Also, corporation groups connected by a single management body such as closely related company groups may be considered as a zone. 11. Precautions It was not a few that two or more domain names were applied by the same organization. When a domain name was obtained, notify it to the related departments in the organization, and it should be considered that the Japan Domain Name Registration Committee and the Japan Network Information Center (JPNIC) need not be a liaison in the organization. Those <ORGANIZATION names> identical to mail domains such as BITNET, UUCP, CSNET and FIDONET, and top domains registered in domain name systems such as EDU and COM, have already been reserved by the Japan Domain Name Registration Committee, so that general application including these <ORGANIZATION names> cannot be accepted. This is one of technical restrictions owing to the historical circumstances of using omissions in JUNET.